Ennio Morricone
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Ennio Morricone

Rome, Latium, Italy | MAJOR

Rome, Latium, Italy | MAJOR
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Italian film composer Ennio Morricone once told the British newspaper The Guardian about an offer he received from a Hollywood film studio, one intended to lure him to the United States. “They said they would give me a villa,” he recalled, and you can hear a little barb in his response. “I told them I liked it in Italy, and there was no need to leave Rome, because I only speak with the director about the score, not the studio.”

Given his self-assurance — he didn’t bother to learn English — it’s not surprising that the 81-year-old Morricone has never performed his work in Los Angeles. (He was scheduled to appear this Sunday night at the Hollywood Bowl but at press time the show was postponed.) One reason for this, of course, is that his music is designed for inside with the lights off, not outside in an amphitheater. But there’s also the simple fact that the stubborn, opinionated artiste has never felt the need to kowtow in Hollywood. He’s never lacked for work.

Yet for someone so seemingly uninterested in experiencing America firsthand (he’s only played the States one other time, New York in 2007), Morricone’s palette is thick with the American vernacular. His collaboration with Italian director Sergio Leone, for whom he created the iconic scores for A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, was solidified in part after Leone heard Morricone’s 1962 take on Woody Guthrie’s “Pastures of Plenty,” sung by American expat Peter Tevis: “California, Arizona, I harvest your crops/Well it’s north up to Oregon to gather your hops.” The melody became a central theme to A Fistful of Dollars, and has since woven its way into the American subconscious. Morricone’s use of jazz was not only innovative, but his particular synthesis, when he decides to employ it, is an eloquently accented Italian translation of an American sound. (Writer David Bither aptly describes the Dollars trilogy as “horse operas.”)

Were those three scores the only ones he ever created, Morricone would have secured his place as a musical iconoclast alongside composers like Juan Garcia Esquivel, Martin Denny and Raymond Scott, visionaries with easily identifiable sonic fingerprints. But Morricone just keeps composing, and, 45 years after his first Leone score, he’s created a body of work as expansive as it is mysterious.

Stateside, he’s worked on Terrence Malick’s Days of Heaven, Brian De Palma’s The Untouchables, Barry Levinson’s Bugsy and Oliver Stone’s U Turn, among many others. His theme for Roland Joffé’s The Mission has become a de facto orchestral standard, and is often employed during do-or-die moments in football commercials, with its chorale gravitas and swirling strings. Morricone’s 1973 collaboration with Joan Baez, “Here’s to You,” has become an oft-covered crowd pleaser, even while the film from which it came, Sergio Sollima’s 1973 Revolver, has been consigned to the dustbin.

What exactly is it about Morricone’s art that’s so magnetic? Sure, the moments of pure freakishness stand out. The childish nyah-nyah voices in Dario Argento’s Bird With the Crystal Plumage, heard on a home stereo excised from the weird chase sequence Morricone wrote it for, are a freaky aural vision, so out there that you wonder about the composer’s sanity. The entirety of Mario Bava’s Danger: Diabolik is one long acid trip of blurts, string sweeps, trippy interludes and out-of-body voices. During one particularly surreal chase scene — right after plumes of pink, purple and yellow poison gas disorient a carful of men, Morricone capturing the chaos with wailing saxophones and surf guitars — the composer slams one open-chord guitar riff as a car makes its getaway. The reverb sounds like a rumbling muffler. (Later, a man and woman roll around in $10 million worth of bills while an Indian raga plays along on a sitar.)

But just as important is the secondhand Morricone, whose sound has become ubiquitous through the sampling and quoting of his iconic melodies, the best of which wordlessly capture a certain ... morriconia. In Alexander Payne’s Election, when Tracy Flick learns that hunky jock Paul is running against her for student-body president, the screams of Morricone’s “Navajo Joe” fly out of the screen. In the title track to Jay-Z’s The Blueprint 2, an operatic female vocal sample from “Ecstasy of Gold” reinforces the rapper’s menace. Metallica has long covered that same song, which first appeared in the film score for The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

Downtown NYC skronker John Zorn’s tribute album, The Big Gundown, is one of the great jazz records of the 1980s. A generation of ecstatic ravers get the warm fuzzies when the archetypical Morricone whistle blows — the Orb sampled it in their chill-out classic, “Little Fluffy Clouds.” Even Ally McBeal, for heaven’s sake, borrowed his music — along with a host of other pop culture icons, from the Pet Shop Boys and the Ramones to The Lion King and Jackass 2, The Jeffe - LA WEEKLY

FOR many filmmakers through the years, a certain kind of pilgrimage to Rome leads to the opulent parlor of the composer Ennio Morricone. It’s the place where he has discussed grand concepts and crucial details, and often unveiled new themes on the piano, for the distinctive film scores he has written over the past four decades, from “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly” to “The Mission.” There are more than 400 of them, though he hasn’t kept count.

Next Saturday Mr. Morricone, 78, makes his long-overdue American concert debut with 200 musicians and singers at Radio City Music Hall. It is the beginning of a triumphal month in the United States that will also include festivals of his films at the Museum of Modern Art and Film Forum, and the release of a tribute album, “We All Love Ennio Morricone” (Sony Masterworks), with performances from Bruce Springsteen, Renée Fleming, Herbie Hancock and Metallica, among others. On Feb. 25 he will be presented with an honorary Academy Award for lifetime achievement, atoning for past omissions. After five nominations, he has never won.

Massimo Gallotta, the promoter who is producing the concert, has been working for more than a year to present Mr. Morricone’s American debut. “It was strange for me that Morricone had never performed here in the past,” Mr. Gallotta said. “He agreed right away. And then I was lucky about the Oscar, the CD, everything.”

Mr. Morricone has given concerts periodically in Europe, including a December performance that drew 50,000 people to the Piazza del Duomo in Milan. At Radio City he will lead the 100-piece Roma Sinfonietta orchestra, along with the 100-member Canticum Novum Singers.

Everyone except Maestro Morricone, as he is called in Rome, considers him startlingly prolific. Along with his hundreds of film scores, he has composed a sizable body of concert music like “Voci dal Silencio” (“Voices From the Silence”), a cantata he wrote in response to “the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11 and all the massacres of humanity all over the world,” he said. He will be performing that work on Friday at the United Nations, at a concert welcoming the new secretary general, Ban Ki-moon.

“The notion that I am a composer who writes a lot of things is true on one hand and not true on the other hand,” he said in an interview at his home, speaking in Italian through a translator. “Maybe my time is better organized than many other people’s. But compared to classical composers like Bach, Frescobaldi, Palestrina or Mozart, I would define myself as unemployed.”

Maestro Morricone is a flinty, pragmatic character, but one who marvels at what he called “the strange miracle of music.” He looked like a bespectacled businessman, wearing a sport jacket, dark trousers, white shirt and tie. He greeted any generalizations about his work with a shrug, or a terse, “That is up to the audience to decide.” But through the years he has created music that is as memorable as the films it accompanies, and sometimes more so.

Audiences respond to the operatic sweep of themes like the ones he wrote for “Cinema Paradiso” and “Once Upon a Time in America.” Musicians prize the ingenuity of his writing: the unexpected harmonic turns, the odd meters (even in tunes that seem to be marches), the use of silence and wide spaces between instruments. Meanwhile hipsters and producers delight in the almost sardonic themes he wrote for films like “Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion” and the striking, sample-ready timbres he has invented.

For “1900” he wrote a score that encompasses Italian folk songs and dance music as well as symphonic arrangements. “He is someone with two identities,” said Bernardo Bertolucci, that film’s director. “One is the composer of contemporary music, and the other is this composer of big epics, this popular music for movies. All his life he has been trying to nourish one identity with the other one, and it is as if the two voices were enriching each other. He has a great capacity of harmonizing in himself.”

Maestro Morricone’s parlor, in a palazzo with a view of the Campidoglio hill in the center of Rome, is a Baroque room so large that the grand piano is almost lost amid the lavishly ornamented chairs, couches and tables. A small silver frame holds a family photo full of children and grandchildren. (He has three sons and a daughter; one son, Andrea, is a composer, and another, Giovanni, is a film director.)

At one corner of the room, a doorway leads into the office where Mr. Morricone writes his music. An unobtrusive movie screen, big enough for some multiplexes, can unroll down one wall of the parlor. On the other walls an antique tapestry of the abduction of the Sabine women is flanked by surreal, turbulent 20th-century paintings full of striking colors and brooding shadows.

The room’s mixture of elegant history and menacing modernity echoes the qualities that have made generations of directors — from Sergio Leone with “A Fistful of Dolla - The New York Times

By Adam Sweeting

Friday February 23, 2001

Among the many extraordinary achievements in Ennio Morricone's career, two in particular stand out. Firstly, he has composed the scores of more than 400 films, including several of the best-known ever written. Secondly, he has never won an Oscar. Maybe that will change this year, with Morricone's nomination for his score for Malena. But, since he's up against the likes of Gladiator and The Patriot, he isn't holding his breath.

Quite how the Academy has managed to overlook a man who has been one of the defining influences on film music for the past 40 years must remain as bewildering as its determination to equip Tom Hanks with a shooting gallery of statuettes; but Morricone wasn't the only one who felt that his luck must surely be in on Oscar night 1986, when his score for The Mission was nominated.
"I definitely felt that I should have won for The Mission," he declares, holding court in the classical splendour of his spacious Rome apartment. "Especially when you consider that the Oscar-winner that year was Round Midnight, which was not an original score. It had a very good arrangement by Herbie Hancock, but it used existing pieces. So there could be no comparison with The Mission. There was a theft! But, of course, if it was up to me, every two years I would win an Oscar."

Settling back on his sofa in a woollen sports shirt, tortoiseshell glasses and slip-on loafers, Morricone appears to be a fragile 72-year-old; but since he's capable of launching into passionate outbursts, during which he semaphores with his arms while bouncing enthusiastically up and down, this may be an elaborate disguise. The maestro's tone is ironic, and I'm having his conversation translated to me from Italian, so it's difficult to gauge the precise extent of the outrage he feels towards the cloth-eared Californians. Maybe if he'd been content to keep running variations on A Fistful of Dollars, or his agonisingly beautiful score for Once Upon a Time in the West, there would now be a row of Oscars on his mantelpiece instead of the tasteful array of blue-and-white ceramic vessels. But he has prided himself on evolving his music over the decades, and would die of shame rather than resort to becoming a cluster of soundbite cliches.

Morricone long ago made the decision that he would remain rooted in Rome, where he was born in 1928. More decisive still has been his courteous but firm determination not to speak English, a considerable (and impressively perverse) accomplishment, considering he has worked for so long in an American-dominated industry. So, however often he may have collaborated with Brian de Palma, Mike Nichols or Warren Beatty, he has made sure he has done so from a European perspective.

"I was offered a free villa in Hollywood, but I said no thank you, I prefer to live in Italy," he reveals. "You can see my decision as either a distinctive factor or as a limitation. I don't feel it is a limitation." Apart from anything else, he would find it hard to live in a town where movie composers routinely farm out their compositions to batteries of professional arrangers. To Morricone, this is an outrageous abdication of professional responsibility. "I invented the formula of 'music composed, arranged and conducted by Ennio Morricone'," he stresses. "Bernard Herrmann used to write all his scores by himself. So did Bach, Beethoven and Stravinsky. I don't understand why this happens in the movie industry."

It was his work on the "spaghetti westerns" of Sergio Leone during the 1960s that turned Morricone into a household name almost on a par with Leone's stone-faced star, Clint Eastwood. The composer's daring juxtapositions of sounds, from surreal whistling noises to spine-rattling electric guitars and ghostly soprano voices, became an inseparable part of Leone's fevered re-imagining of the western genre. Morricone also seized upon real-life sounds and loaded them with ominous meaning, like the coyote-howl motif from The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, and the deafening tick of the pocket-watches counting down the climactic shoot-out of For A Few Dollars More. He didn't conceive his scores as something to play over the pictures but as growing organically from the fabric of the movie.

"I come from a background of experimental music which mingled real sounds together with musical sounds," he explains, "so I used real sounds partly to give a kind of nostalgia that the film had to convey. I also used these realistic sounds in a psychological way. With The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, I used animal sounds - as you say, the coyote sound - so the sound of the animal became the main theme of the movie. I don't know how I had this idea. It's just according to your experiences, and following the musical avant-garde."

A childhood aptitude for music earned Morricone a place at Rome's Santa Cecilia Conservatory when he was 12. With some musical theory duly drummed into him, he found h - The Guardian

Ennio Morricone has provided film directors such as Sergio Leone with exotic music for more than four decades. He's the maestro. And doesn't he know it, says James McNair

Published: 11 March 2004

Interviewing Ennio Morricone, one must observe the protocol. He insists on being called "maestro". As a 75-year-old Italian who also happens to be the greatest living film-score composer, he is worthier of the epithet than most. It also chimes with the grandeur of his central Rome apartment, a 17th-century property with crystal chandeliers and views of the Forum.

Disappointingly, pressing the maestro's doorbell elicits a monotone buzz, not the stirring "Ay-ee ay-ee ah!" of his theme for Sergio Leone's The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Having gained entry, we are led to a short, slightly frail-looking man in a blue cardigan and tortoiseshell glasses. The maestro nods, then pats the antique chaise he's sitting on. He wants our pretty blonde translator, Roberta, to join him there.

The creator of more than 400 film scores, Morricone was born in the Rome of Mussolini in 1928. He started composing at the age of six, and by 12 he was studying music under Raffaele Petrassi at the Santa Cecilia Conservatory. His first score was for Luciano Salce's 1961 film Il Federale (The Fascist), but it was the outré, highly evocative music he composed for the spaghetti westerns of his schoolfriend Sergio Leone that brought Morricone to the fore.

But this meeting has been prompted by the release of Arena Concerto, an album of live performances of some of his best-known works. Much of it was recorded in the suitably epic surrounds of the Verona Arena, with Morricone conducting a 90-piece orchestra and 100-strong choir.

His big brown eyes fixed on the middle-distance, he tells me he admires Stockhausen, Monteverdi and Stravinsky. "I like that he took ideas from folk music," he says of the Russian modernist. "Did I learn from Stravinsky? Of course. But no composer, not even Stravinsky or Bach, invented music. One builds on what was previously composed, making use of the fresh resources that are newly available."

We talk about his score for A Fistful of Dollars: about its church bells, whip-cracks and Hank Marvin-gone-loco guitars. These last were the work of Allesandro Allesandroni, who was also responsible for whistling that score's main melody. Mindful of Allesandroni's fine vibrato, I venture that whistling is a dying art whose deft execution is now largely the preserve of men over 50. "You're deluding yourself there," Morricone says. "Besides, Allesandroni was quite a young man when we recorded A Fistful of Dollars. Perhaps there is a dearth of whistling talent in England, however: it's so cold there nobody feels happy enough to whistle."

The maestro's work with the late Leone is a tiny part of his output. Whether working with iconoclastic Italians such us Pasolini and Zeffirelli, or Hollywood heavyweights such as Oliver Stone and Warren Beatty, Morricone always furnishes directors with wonderfully simpatico music. He is also the composer's composer, one anonymous peer noting that "his scores can lend gravitas even to rubbish like Disclosure and Mission to Mars." But he is more likely to be remembered for his fine choral and world music-influenced score for Roland Joffé's The Mission.

In the late 1980s, when a Herbie Hancock-supervised treatment of bop standards for Round Midnight scooped the Oscar that many felt The Mission's soundtrack should have won, word was that Morricone was highly miffed. Now, however, he says that never having won an Oscar isn't important. "I simply want to carry on expressing my ideas. Other people see the moment of creativity as magical, but it is not. That's just a romantic notion. For me, it's simply, 'I have to get from A to B. How am I going to achieve this?' You have to be like the painter who knows his brush strokes. In the end it comes down to technique and experience. Sometimes a small idea will come without warning, but after that, I insist once more upon craft. If you know how to do your job, you will get a result. It's very simple."

There are times when the maestro displays the kind of plain rudeness that can be strangely endearing in the elderly. He orders an espresso for everyone in the room but me. He rolls his eyes when he thinks my questions particularly ridiculous. He makes eye contact three, maybe four times in the whole interview. "I was up very late last night," he says at one point. Momentarily, I read this as some kind of apology, but then he follows through with: "Just how many questions do you have?"

Weary as he is, Morricone has the energy to stroke Roberta's hair. And gently to prick her arm with a toothpick, smiling devilishly. Our translator isn't fussed. "Would you like some of my espresso?" she asks me. Jab, jab, goes the maestro's toothpick.

When not busy at his recording studio in Rome, Morricone says he enjoys cinema and working out a little - The Independent

June 3, 2001

Famous for his atmospheric but melodic film scores, Ennio Morricone has also written prolifically and experimentally for the concert hall. As he prepares to conduct two rare performances of his work at the Barbican Centre, Brian Hunt talks to him in Rome

WHEN Ennio Morricone conducts his own compositions at the Barbican this weekend, the two disciplines in which he writes - film scores and concert music - will be separated by a mere 20-minute interval. Yet, in terms of public awareness of his music, the gulf is immense. It isn't hard to guess which half of the programme has caused the two nights to sell out. Such is the fame of Morricone's scores for Sergio Leone's classic spaghetti Westerns that it even eclipses more recent successes, including The Mission and Cinema Paradiso, let alone his "serious" work.

Avant garde: Morricone made his name with the parched sonic landscapes he created for the spaghetti Westerns such as The Good, The Bad and the Ugly

His is not a solitary predicament. Bernard Herrmann's chamber music was unmemorable, his scores for Hitchcock unforgettable. Morricone's fellow Italian Nino Rota composed for the great Fellini films, but his symphonic works have created scarcely a ripple.

When I meet the 72-year-old composer in his flat in Rome, he is courteous rather than warm, alert and animated behind the dapper but unremarkable exterior. The interview is conducted through an interpreter; despite writing for Hollywood in the later part of his continuing career, Morricone has never learnt English. If this suggests an unwillingness to become fully immersed in the movie world, then there is other supporting evidence.

He is known to become irritable if too much emphasis is placed on his work with Leone. When I ask if he feels that, over his career, he has found the right balance between movie scores and concert music, his answer is ambiguous. "For many years - 20 at least - I wrote no concert music. The balance was wrong then. By the 1980s I had written no more than 10 concert works. Today, however, I have about 70 or 80 pieces."

But in terms of public appreciation? "In writing a film score you are absolutely aware of the public, and of writing music the audience understands. I would never think of distracting a film audience with complicated music. I saw my task to be making things easy for the audience, while retaining my dignity as a musician.

"I have worked with directors who encouraged me to write complicated music. These films have not turned out to be blockbusters; in fact, few people have gone to see them. This was a lesson for me. Although I was proud of the music, I had to be aware of what had happened, and why. The audience for movies does not usually have a high musical culture."

It's both an illuminating and an evasive answer. To put it in context, one has to look at the conflicting influences on Morricone's early musical life. His father played trumpet in night-clubs, and it was as a player on the same instrument that Ennio entered the St Cecilia Academy in Rome, where he also studied harmony and composition. By day, he analysed classical scores from Palestrina to Stockhausen; by night, he deputised for his father in music halls.

Marriage in 1956, and the birth of a son a year later, increased the need to boost his income. Working in radio and television, he acquired a reputation for fluency rather than originality. But his gravitation towards the Italian film studios, in the early Sixties, provided more scope.

The pressures and deadlines were not a worry for him. "When I was at school, if I had to do my homework in three days, I would do it in one, so I then had two days to myself. I took the same approach to my composition exams at the Academy. To me, it was like a race. If I was given 36 hours to write a fugue, I would allow myself eight.

"By setting myself these early deadlines, I knew that, even if I failed my own test, I would still have time left. Because of this, when I started writing movies, I never suffered. If I have ideas, I can write quickly. The trouble is, one can waste a lot of time looking for ideas."

When Morricone's name was put forward for A Fistful of Dollars, the first in the line of Sergio Leone westerns that would peak with Once Upon a Time in the West, the director was reluctant to consider him. He thought Morricone's previous scores were too derivative, but, as the composer pointed out, pastiche was exactly what he'd been asked for.

Happy to break away from symphonic Romanticism tinged with cowboy ballads, Morricone invented for Leone a bizarre yet coherent style of astonishing originality. Choruses burst from nowhere and disappear as abruptly; harpsichords and Jew's harps twang, bells chime; animal cries mingle with a wailing harmonica, and a wordless soprano voice or eerie, whistled melody floats across the parched landscapes.

It should come as no surprise to learn that the man responsible for - The Daily Telegraph

Ennio Morricone
Barbican Hall, London

Richard Williams
Monday March 12, 2001

So this dapper little man, who looks as though he has visited the same barber and eaten the same food at the same restaurant every day of his working life, this is the one whose music added the mythic dimension to the stories of Leone, Pontecorvo, Malick and Tornatore. His arrival on stage in London on Saturday night, giving his first concert in Britain at the age of 72, evoked applause suffused not just with admiration but with gratitude for all those evenings - decades of them - spent in the dark but illuminated by his extraordinary gift.

Many fine composers have made careers in the movies. Some, such as Bernard Herrmann and Nino Rota, have left their fingerprints on the history of the cinema. Only Ennio Morricone, however, has produced a body of work which entitles him to be considered as much of an auteur as those directors whose work he has so consistently enhanced in the 40 years since he sat down to write his first film score.
For this concert, at which he conducted the 90 musicians of the Rome Sinfonietta and the 100-strong Crouch End Festival Chorus and Folk Choir, the composer was clearly obliged to concentrate on the sort of work for which he has become famous. But first, and quite properly, he wanted to show us what Ennio Morricone does when he is writing music for his own satisfaction rather than for someone else's strip of celluloid.

The two pieces of chamber music which preceded the interval were the product of his commitment to the avant-garde of the mid-20th century, to the music of the serialists and their successors. Ombra di Lontana Presenza featured two violas - the first, that of Fausto Anzelmo, in person, and the second, that of the late Dino Asciola, the piece's dedicatee, on tape.

Quiet, ruminative, moving from a sustained intensification of simple materials to a narrative based on interlocking fragments, it formed a sharp contrast with Fragment of Eros, a setting of five poems by Sergio Miceli. Performed in Latin, Italian, German, French and English by the soprano Susanna Rigacci, the piece made use of an astringent chromaticism strongly contrasting with the pungent earthiness of some of the verse: "On n'a... on a... on-a-niste," for example, or "I want my rapture like a snake /Between your bosom - between your thighs."

After the interval, we were allowed to see what Morricone does with his day job, organised into three thematic medleys, the first dedicated to Sergio Leone's spaghetti westerns, the second to films of political protest, and the third to films characterised as "tragic, lyric, epic". Anyone still disconcerted by the first half was immediately reassured by the ghostly ululation introducing the theme from The Good, The Bad and The Ugly, the first part of a triptych in which the glorious ballad theme from Once Upon a Time in the West provided a fine bridge to the galloping climax of A Fistful of Dynamite.

Many among the audience would probably have been happy for that sort of thing to go on all night, but Morricone is understandably sensitive about the closeness of his identification with Leone. The section dedicated to political cinema included an ominous passage from Gillo Pontecorvo's The Battle of Algiers, the lovely adagio from Brian de Palma's Casualties of War, and Dulce Ponte's fine singing of the lush ballad from Giuliano Montaldo's Sacco and Vanzetti and the Bolero-based A Brisa do Coracao from Roberto Faenza's Sostiene Pereira.

For the final scheduled sequence the Crouch End singers split themselves into two groups, creating an antiphony exploited in the finale, On Earth as it is in Heaven from Roland Joffe's The Mission, in which the smaller of the two choirs sang along with the beat of conga drums while the remainder were paced by the full orchestra, graphically reflecting the film's examination of a collision between "primitive" and "civilised" societies.

A standing ovation was rewarded by five encores, the first of which - the exquisitely serene Dorothy's Theme from Once Upon a Time in America - was the shortest, the simplest and the most affecting of the evening's offerings. Who would have thought that a disciple of Berio and Nono would turn out to be one of the 20th century's greatest melodists?

It is, sadly, impossible to go and see Once Upon a Time in America again for the first time, or The Battle of Algiers, or Cinema Paradiso, which provided the final encore. But this remarkable evening was certainly the next best thing. - The Guardian


1964 I Malamondo Epic
1966 Menage all' Italiana (Marriage Italian Style) RCA
1966 Red Sonja Varese Sarabande
1966 The Good, the Bad and the Ugly [EMI]
1967 A Fistful of Dollars RCA
1967 Faccia a Faccia (Face to Face) Eureka
1969 L' Assoluto Naturale Cinevox
1969 L' Uccello Dalle Piume Di Cristallo Cinevox
1969 La Resa Dei Conti (The Big Gundown)
1969 Metti Una Sera a Cena Cinevox
1970 Burn United Artists
1970 Guns for San Sebastian MCA
1970 Indagine Su Un Cittadino Al Di Sopra Di Ogni Sospetto Cinevox
1971 For a Few Dollars More BMG
1971 Giu la Testa Cinevox
1971 Sacco and Vanzetti Omega
1972 Once Upon a Time in the West [RCA]
1977 Exorcist II: The Heretic Warner Bros.
1979 L' Immoralita Chameleon
1979 Bunoe Notizie CEM
1979 Come Un Grotondo CEM
1979 Red Tent Paramount
1983 Sahara Varese Sarabande
1987 Rampage Fastlane
1987 The Untouchables A&M
1989 Casualties of War Columbia
1990 A Time of Destiny Virgin
1990 State of Grace MCA
1991 The Thing Varese Sarabande
1992 City of Joy Epic
1992 El Greco/Giordano Bruno
1992 L' Umanoide (The Humanoid)/Amanti D'Oltre Tomba (Nightmare Castle) RCA
1993 Venetian Lies (Professione Figlio) Cam
1993 When Love Is Lust (Quandso Lamore E Sensualita) Cam
1993 Sun Spots (Eat It Macchie Solari) Cam
1993 Cannibals (I Cannibali) Cam
1993 Commandment for Gangster (Comandamenti per ... Cam
1993 Dear Dr. Grasler (Mio Caro Dottore Grasler) Cam
1993 Dirty Hands (Mani Sporace) Cam
1993 Escalation Cam
1993 Everybody's Fine (Stanno Tutti Bene) Cam
1993 Inheritance (Leredita Ferramonti) Cam
1993 La Domenica Specialmente Cam
1993 Meeting (Incontro) Cam
1993 Stalin's Women (Sai Cosa Faceva Stalin Alle ... Cam
1993 An Hour with Ennio Morricone Replay
1993 In the Line of Fire Sony
1994 Nuovo Cinema Paradiso Tristar
1994 Scorta Tristar
1994 Blue Eyed Bandit (Il Bandito dagli Occhi Azurri) Camcse
1994 Gli Avvoltoi Hanno Fame/I Giorni del Cielo Legend
1994 Il Gatto a Nove Code PNT
1994 Jonah & The Whale (Jona Che Visse Nella Balema) Camcos
1994 L' Eredita Ferramonti/Libera Am Chameleon
1994 Prato (Meadow) Chameleon
1994 Thank You Aunt (Grazie Zia) Camcse
1994 The Long Silence (Il Lungo Silenzi) Camcos
1994 Vita Venduta Chameleon
1995 Disclosure [Original Soundtrack] Virgin
1995 Butterfly [Original Soundtrack] Prometheus
1995 La Dame Aux Camelias Prometheus
1995 Stay as You Are Prometheus 1995 Sunday Woman Prometheus
1995 Western Quintet DRG
1995 Colonne Sonore BMG Italy
1995 I Western BMG Italy
1995 Trilogia Del Dollaro BMG Italy
1995 Action Thrillers EMI
1995 Once upon a Time in America Musicrama
1995 Soundtracks Beat
1995 Cat O Nine Tails Intermezzo Media
1995 Svegliati E Uccidi & Citta Violenta BMG International
1995 L' Uomo Delle Stelle Soundtrack Listeners
1995 Wolf [Original Soundtrack] Columbia
1996 Ennio Morricone [Vivi Musica] Vivi Musica
1996 Secret of the Sahara BMG International
1996 Hawks & the Sparrows Intermezzo Media
1996 Original Film Music Great Hits
1996 L' Orchestra Alex
1996 Queimada Dom
1996 Drammi Gotici (Gothic Dramas): A Rare Television Score By Ennio Morricone DRG
1996 Ennio Morricone Per Pier Paolo Pasolini RCA
1997 Hundra [Delta/Laserlight] Delta
1997 Prima Della Rivoluzione Intermezzo Medi
1998 Desert of the Tartars Intermezzo Media
1998 La Corta Notte Dell Bambole Di Vetro [Intermezzo Media] Intermezzo Media
1998 Murder Charge for a Student Intermezzo Media
1999 La Califfa Screen Trax
1999 Piume de Cristallo Cinevox
1999 Vite Strozzate Intermezzo Media
1999 Once Upon a Time in the West Intermezzo Media
1999 Le Foto Proibite Di Una Signora Per Bene Dagored
1999 Fourth King DRG



Italian composer and conductor Ennio Morricone, who has composed some 400 motion picture scores over a 45-year career embarks on a European tour this summer.

The highly prolific composer has worked with virtually every major international director of the last half-century. Morricone has earned five Academy Award nominations for original score — for Days of Heaven (1978), The Mission (1986), The Untouchables (1987), Bugsy (1991) and Malèna (2000).

While the bulk of his work has been on Italian films, including The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, Once upon a Time in America and Cinema Paradiso, Morricone has composed memorable scores for such international titles as Bulworth, In the Line of Fire, La Cage aux Folles and Two Mules for Sister Sara. His most recent project, Baarìa, was released in 2009.

Born in Rome in 1928, Morricone was hired in 1964 by Sergio Leone and began a long collaboration with the director on what came to be known as "spaghetti Westerns," though his career has spanned most film genres from comedy to romance to horror. His more than 400 soundtracks pull from a diverse selection of musical styles—classical, jazz, pop, rock, electronic, avant-garde, and traditional Italian folksongs. A tireless artist, Morricone has appeared in venues around the world conducting his own classic compositions.

A five-time Oscar nominee and the winner of a Grammy and two Golden Globes, Ennio Morricone has won BAFTA's Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music five times, and he is an eight-time winner of the Nastro D'Argento Award and a six-time winner of the David di Donatello Award, the leading film awards in his native Italy. Morricone has also received lifetime achievement awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, ASCAP, the Venice Film Festival, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and the National Board of Review.